Spring Transaction isolation level

Posted on Updated on

Spring 3 In this discussion, we will see how Spring provided DBMS Transaction Isolation. Here we will elaborate one by one about transaction and it attributes.

Transaction : – It is a sequence of operations ( like read,update and write ) that works as a unit to accomplish a task. like Booking a ticket,Selling a item.

Isolation Level :-  Transaction specify isolation level that defines the degree to which one transaction must be isolated from other resource or data modification by other transaction. A transaction always gets an exclusive lock on any data it modifies and holds that lock until the transaction completes, regardless of the isolation level set for that transaction

Choosing the transaction isolation level does not affect on lock that are acquired to protect the data modification But it’s control the data modification by more than one transaction by define good Isolation level. A low Isolation may be increased the ability of users to access the data at the same time that increase the number of concurrency i.e dirty read or lost of data. conversely higher Isolation level  reduces the type of concurrency effect that user may encounter.

A valid Transaction has four properties that is known as ACID.

  1. Atomicity: It says either all operation get successful or roll-back completely means if any of transaction fails then entire transaction fails.
  2. Consistency: Database remains consistent ( one valid state to other ) after every transaction.
  3. Isolation: Each instance of Transaction work separately in concurrent execution. No two or more transaction instance can be interference or visible to each other.
  4. Durability: Once the transaction is committed then it must be written permanently into Database even if power failure or system failure.

Every RDBMS supports ACID properties like Oracle,MySQL,Microsoft SQL Server,PostgreSQL or more and concept is remains same thought-out technologies.

Transaction isolation is a concept in Spring Framework that applied to Transaction and related with ACID properties.  Isolation level determined how a transaction to be visible to other transaction in concurrent execution. Lower level Isolation increase concurrency effect ( like dirty read and lost of updation) . However higher level Isolation type reduce the concurrency effect that user may encounter.

Hence,Isolation Lavel says, Changes made by one transaction on table data must be visible correctness to other transaction and data must not be dirty or corrupted. 

Isolation Level :- 

  1. Read Uncommitted
  2. Read Committed
  3. Repeatable Read
  4. Serializable

Example : –

In Spring, @Transactional annotation is use to define a Isolation level in your business layer. This mean given method execute under transaction Isolation level.

private UserDAO userDAO;

public void signUp(User user) {

  // Interact with userDAO


here, we have defined a signUp() to be executed in a Transaction under Isolation level READ_COMMITED.

The following table shows the concurrency side effects allowed by the different isolation levels.

Isolation Level Dirty Read Non Repeatable Read Phantom
Read uncommitted Yes Yes Yes
Read committed No Yes Yes
Repeatable read No No Yes
Snapshot No No No
Serializable No No No
  • Read committed (Database Engine default level)

Read Uncommitted

It is also called a dirty read, Occurs when a transaction allow to read a data from Database which has been modified by other running transaction and not yet committed.

Example : suppose transaction t1 fetched a row a =10 and transaction t2 update to 20 i.e a =20 again transaction t1 fetched same data which return a =20 and then transaction t2 rollback it changes then value a become 10 but still t1 can see a = 20;

Non-repeatable reads

It will happened when one transaction retrieve a row twice then fetched row value get different.

Example :-  suppose Transaction T1 fired a query (“select * from employee where id=1”)

then Second Transaction T2 updated the row values and committed.

Again T1 fired the same query then value would be different.


Phantom reads

A phantom read occurs when, in the course of a transaction, two identical queries are executed, and the collection of rows returned by the second query is different from the first.